“Time may be the fire we burn in.” And even though we may struggle to quench its unrelenting flame, scientists have tried to divert its path by isolating small enclosures where time slows to a crawl. Within these chambers the frenetic Brownian dance becomes a chaperoned waltz, as temperatures approach absolute zero. The internal environment of Cryogenic storage Dewar is really a world apart, a reminder from the ultimate heat-death that must befall our universe in the eons ahead.
For many who aim to discover truths regarding the workings in the cell, holding back the floodgates of time is a problem of significant proportions. Scientists are generally enthusiastic about very specific cell properties that occur at critical junctions within the lifetime of a cell. Holding these processes from increasing while their properties may be exploited is similar to the problem of catching one’s shadow.
Cryogenic freezing of cells has been used as one means to fix the problem of the slow burn. By reduction of temperatures of samples towards the glass transition phase of -133°C, the temperature in which all metabolic activity goes to a halt, scientists can seclude moments in time, returning again and again to investigate that instant in history.
Unsurprisingly, cryogenics has become a vital industry that creates customized products for pretty much every conceivable purpose. From small tabletop apparatus to industrial-scale liquifiers, the market in cryogenics provides mechanical freezers, packing containers, and dewars in just about every size, shape, and configuration imaginable. With your a multitude of products to pick from expertise in which ones are handiest may elude the typical consumer. To be able to provide an overview of the key producers of cryogenic laboratory supplies several manufacturers will probably be profiled in this post.
Ultra-low lab freezers are one of those particular things which most people never think about until they quit working. Made to run for years without interruption in service, lab freezers will be the quiet sentinels from the laboratory, keeping a vigilant watch on the researcher’s most prized possessions. Most scientists attempt to avoid the very thought of what might happen if their freezer failed, or they try to erase the memory through the day if it did. A career’s amount of samples may be lost in just one afternoon– numerous years of careful collecting and cataloging reduced to mere puddles on to the floor. Although this sort of scenario looms ominously from the periphery of every researcher’s consciousness, few are prepared for a day if it actually occurs. Manufacturers of ultra-low lab freezers took great pains to ensure that power failures and refrigerant leaks will never compromise one’s samples. They build machines that are intended to be forgotten.
MMR Technologies is definitely the only company that utilizes the Kleemenko cooling cycle within its refrigerators. While the natural gas industry provides this technique for many years, MMR Technologies was the 1st company to patent the technology and adapt it for tiny, lightweight, and portable freezing systems.
Just how the Kleemenko cycle works is the fact a combination of compressed gas and liquid is passed down a countercurrent exchanger and is able to expand using a capillary or throttling valve. Cooling occurs upon expansion, and the cool gas passes backup the warmth exchanger, precooling the incoming high-pressure gas. Several liquid-vapor separators can be incorporated in the cycle in order that the increase of the liquid may be used to precool the vapor (W.A. Little., Presented at ICEC17, Bournemouth, U.K.,July 14-17 1998)
The BIO 120 is actually a zero-maintenance, low-power-consumption Kleemenko refrigerator that is made for storing frozen tissue, cell cultures, organs, and the entire body parts. The unit allows the scientist to warm and funky samples uniformly without shocking them, and because it offers an inside power source it can be used for your transportation of samples from storage facility to examine laboratory. Robert Paugh, product manager for MMR Technologies, was insistent on the requirement for controlled temperature ramping.
“Like a user you need to understand the minimum temperature and the way it gets there,” said Paugh. MMR Technologies’ enhanced control systems and printed thermal record of cooling makes sure that uniform temperatures happen to be maintained during the entire cooling process.
Kelvinator Scientific, and that is a subsidiary of Frigidaire, provides freezer units for laboratories and pharmacies that are equipped for biological samples at temperatures to -86°C. At temperatures this low animal and plant viruses, bacteria, spores, and bacteriophages can be preserved for extended periods. Locking lids are offered as a way to protect samples from accidental contact with ambient temperatures. Adjustable shelving, pullout drawers, and drawer partition inserts are useful for separating different experiments.
NuAire, Inc. credits most of its ultralow freezing capabilities to the heavy-gauge galvanized steel cabinets. The high temperature-conducting quality of this material reduces stress on compressors allowing the units to work longer and colder than would certainly be possible. Maintaining temperatures at -152°C the NuAire ultralow freezer can do holding samples underneath the crystallization point.
In keeping with the Clean Air Act of 1990 for systems using HCFC/HFC refrigerants, NuAire also works with a special blend of azeotropic gases which can be non-flammable and let on-site recycling. Furthermore, a built-in timer cycles the reduced stage compressor every 24 hours, turning them back in order that the capillary tubing is going to be cleared of ice formation.
So-Low Environmental Equipment Co. has a long tradition of creating ultralow freezers for laboratory applications. Actually, with forty years of experience under its belt, So-Low is probably the oldest manufacturers of ultralow temperature freezers in the commercial. When the Montreal Protocol started the phase away from CFC refrigerants in 1987, So-Low was among the first to use Dupont Suva 95, the new CFC-free refrigerant that runs cooler and with less pressure than CFCs. In addition to its investigation of eco-friendly refrigerants, So-Low has also developed a revolutionary compressor that may be designed mainly for its ultralow freezers.
Forma Scientific offers both mechanical and liquid nitrogen storage systems for preserving samples at ultralow temperatures. The mechanical freezers preserve specimens right down to -86°C, while Forma’s liquid nitrogen freezers store samples at -133°C. Unlike its competitors’ liquid nitrogen freezers, however, Forma provides square cross-section units instead of the standard cylindrical containers. Every one of these cabinets is constructed of cold-rolled steel. Forma’s counterbalanced lids provide quick access, an optional thermal data printer continuously documents all operational functions, and a storage system adjusts to accommodate a range of tube sizes. Forma also provides a patented double door unit that separates long lasting from everyday storage.
Revco is probably the largest manufacturers of laboratory freezers exceeding half a century of experience in the market. Revco’s Elite, Value, and Ultima mechanical freezers sustain temperatures from -10°C to as low as -120°C without CFC refrigerants and can be purchased in chest, upright, and tabletop models. Its sophisticated Ultima freezers offer automatic electronic systems that constantly adjust conditions on the internal and external environment, correcting for subtle fluctuations in ambient temperature, excessive loading with warm samples, and dirty filters. In addition, it includes a scrubbing cycle that removes vaporized lubricating oil through the evaporating coils.
Sanyo is manufacturing laboratory and medical freezers in excess of 2 decades, starting with its production of the 1st -40°C chest freezer in 1974. Sanyo duplicated this achievement with the introduction of the first -152°C ultralow temperature freezer in 1991 and additional demonstrated its position by becoming the first manufacturer to provide a complete selection of CFC-free medical freezers. Today, Sanyo offers one of several largest selections of ultralow temperature lab freezers on the market today. Sanyo’s upright and chest freezers are equipped for use in preserving cells, bacteria, spores, pollen, sperm, protozoa, and blood components for academic and industrial research.
The term dewar, originally used on double walled glass vacuum flasks, has become put on a wide array of insulated vessels designed for repair of samples in liquid nitrogen. Depending upon their size, dewars usually rest on the ground or sit on tabletops where samples can be easily accessed. As a result of quality of insulation materials, some dewars have maintained critical temperatures provided that twelve months without being regenerated with liquid nitrogen. The normal thermal wall contains an aluminum or steel sandwich filled with polyurethane. The dimensions and configuration of dewars vary to this type of extent that a great many companies build custom dewars to order. A number of these companies along with their items are reviewed within the following section.
From Alaskan salmon eggs to embryos from Idaho’s chicken farms, MVE has made laboratory freezers for a multitude of applications. Obviously, animal breeders are simply a small portion of its customers. Blood and cell storage in addition to organ shipment are an equally large element of MVE’s business with medical and pharmaceutical applications representing the easiest-growing part of the marketplace for the company’s products.
MVE was the first company to formulate biological freezers able to maintaining a -190°C environment for any full year without refilling with nitrogen. Since that time MVE has released the complete brand of XLC series liquid and vapor-phase freezers. The XLC liquid nitrogen freezers are capable of handling up to 36,000 vials at temperatures as low as -195.8°C. The vapor-phase freezers are fitted to cells that could be stored at -125°C but could become damaged or discolored at critical temperatures achieved by liquid nitrogen freezers. The vapor-phase freezers are also helpful for storing hazardous materials that might cross-communicate inside a liquid medium, such as contaminated-blood bags that happen to be prone to break open.
Quantum Technology is actually a worldwide manufacturer and supplier of laboratory freezers with offices in the states and Germany. Its product line includes everything from compressors and temperature sensors to gas wells and vacuum shrouds.
According to Sean Wolf, product manager for Quantum Technology, a good way his company has was able to remain competitive is simply by offering on-site service and warranty repair. Another major selling point of Quantum’s refrigeration systems is they may be custom-designed.
Among Quantum Technology’s most favored products can be a helium recovery system. Although liquid helium is merely $4 or $5 per liter, in numerous countries away from America and Europe, the cost of purchasing helium is a concern of concern. That is one of the explanations why Quantum Technology makes an effective two-stage and three-stage closed-cycle refrigerator where the helium is retained within the system. The helium with this refrigerator is reliquified to be used repeatedly.
Lab-Line Instruments, designer and manufacturer of dewars for scientific research and recently acquired subsidiary of Barnstead Thermolyne, offers a Thermo-Flask type of items that include wide-mouth flasks, insulated Thermo-Cups, steel Thermo-Flasks, and enameled steel Thermo-Flasks. Twenty-six different models can be purchased with capacities from 200 cc to 10 liters, and every one of these models is offered with a 24-month warranty. Other special attributes of the Thermo-Flask brand of products include vented lids to avoid pressure build-up, fold-down handles, and borosilicate inner vessels evacuated to deliver coolant retention for samples kept in liquid nitrogen or solid CO2.
Barnstead Thermolyne manufactures the Bio-Cane and Locator Plus cryogenic storage systems, that happen to be distributed by several companies throughout the United States. The Bio-Cane systems can be purchased in five sizes and give features including super vacuum insulation, ampule cans, a polycarbonate lid, and color-coded canisters for inventory identification. The Locator Plus storage systems can be purchased in four sizes and possess capacities as high as 6,000 vials. As well as several of the standard features within the Bio-Cane, the Locator provides hanging racks by using a gridded box design, audible and visual alarms that warn of low-level conditions, and an ultrasonic liquid level monitor that eliminates experience of liquid nitrogen and consequently reduces evaporation.
Pope Scientific makes a number of traditional dewar flasks in “cylindrical,” “low form shallow,” and “spherical” styles. All Pope dewars are manufactured from borosilicate glass covered by a protective mesh, as well as every wide-mouth model features a vented polyethylene stopper to minimize evaporation. Wide-mouth dewars can also be jacketed in aluminum casing for more safety.
Pope Scientific’s narrow-mouth or “constricted-neck” dewars are suitable for temporary storage or transfer applications with holding times above 14 days. Most of these units come designed with a small-evaporation stopper, a fully shielded evacuation tip, a weighted base, and protective mesh. Selections for these instruments include fiberglass caddies for carrying or decanting.
Taylor-Wharton International helps make the K Series, XT (Extended Time), HC (High Capacity), and RS (Rack System) dewars which allow the researcher to store large quantities of semen, embryos, and biological samples at liquid-nitrogen temperatures. Each one of these units is complemented by their own inventory control system, which was created to maximize the number of vials that can be safely arranged right into a canister-type storage device. By either immersing samples in liquid nitrogen or suspending them in nitrogen vapor, vials might be maintained at temperatures of -196° C.
Cryogenic Tubes are some of the most commonly used and least considered implements in the researcher’s tool box. Bags of tubes are stuffed into corners and forgotten until they mysteriously run out one day. Then it is time to go shopping. Making decisions about buying cryogenic tubes is generally guided by three primary issues, the very first which concerns the matter of whether or not they are externally or internally threaded. Advocates of externally threaded vials suggest that material is trapped within the threads of internally threaded vials, while proponents of the internally threaded sort argue that externally threaded vials tend to be more easily contaminated by accidental contact. Although reports have been conducted so as to confirm or refute these claims, these have not been conclusive, and also the debate continues.
An additional consideration that comes under consideration when purchasing cryogenic tubes will be the material from where these are constructed. While plastic vials are, perhaps, stronger than glass, they take more time to warm which could negatively change the viability of some cells. Some plastic tubes will also be contaminated with releasing fluids during the molding process. However, releasing fluids is easy to remove with the care, and several companies like Axygen are turning to new polished molds that do not require using releasing fluids. Glass, alternatively, warms rapidly but can also be at the mercy of fracture on account of microchannels which can form within the glass, causing leakage of sample contents, or perhaps violent explosions. Plastic vials can also be vulnerable to nitrogen penetration but the potential for explosion is not as great.
Gasketing has also been a challenge of some contention in this industry. Many cryovials have a washer that keeps the internal pressure of your vial from expelling the tube’s contents after it is warmed to ambient conditions. The rapid increase of gas throughout the tube is enough to force cells and fluid throughout the lids of many non-gasketed cryotubes. Silicon is generally preferred as being the best material for insulating caps against leakage. Although rubber is likewise used, it has a tendency to lose its elasticity when dropped to freezing temperatures, a problem which was demonstrated if the “O” rings about the space shuttle Challenger failed.
Simport Plastics, headquartered in Quebec, gives a large collection of cryotubes and microcentrifuge tubes which you can use at temperatures as little as -190°C. Made for handling biological samples under freezing conditions for prolonged periods, its Cryovials™ come equipped with attached leak proof caps that comprise of a dual lip as well as a silicon washer. A unique ridge on each cap makes handling easier, contributing to one-hand aseptic technique, and color-coded cap inserts along with white marking areas make each vial easily identifiable.
Evergreen Scientific manufactures the CryoSure® brand of vials for storing cell cultures, blood/serum specimens, sperm, as well as other biological fluids at vapor-phase liquid nitrogen temperatures (-195°C). CryoSure vials can be purchased in 1. ml, 1.5 ml, and three.5 ml sizes and come in round-bottom and freestanding configurations.
Evergreen also has a wide array of microcentrifuge tubes that range in capacities from 250 µ l to 2. ml. These include polypropylene tubes, which may be combined with solvents, alcohols, chlorinated and aromatic hydrocarbons, and ketones. These tubes are sterilized using gamma radiation and therefore are pressure tested within a vacuum chamber to ensure the reliability of its double-sealing screw caps.
Evergreen has developed a new microcentrifuge tube, in cooperation with Washington University Lipid Research Center, to be used in lipid fractionation studies. It is a 1.5 ml polystyrene tube with an 11 mm high-density polyethylene cap. One of the outstanding options that come with this tube is it is entirely transparent.
Nalgene® and Nunc™ cryogenic vials include an array of externally and internally threaded vials from 1. to 5. ml capacities which are silicone gasketed and guaranteed for usage inside a centrifuge. The Nalgene 5000 series vials feature graduations and are certified to be sterile, noncytotoxic and nonpyrogenic, as the System 100 vials are bound to be leakproof inside a microcentrifuge approximately 8,000 g and throughout shipment and transport. However, the corporation warns that cryotubes improperly sealed in liquid phase could lead to an explosion or biohazard release. Nalgene and Nunc have given CryoFlex Tubing to avert this contingency.
Wheaton Science Products makes tubes and flasks for nearly every eventuality. From serum bottles to mobile phase reservoirs, they have developed an extensive catalog of items for handling liquid samples. Wheaton’s Cryules® are available in both plastic and glass. The glass Cryule is constructed from Wheaton-33° low extractable glass that could be hermetically sealed. They are suitable for the preservation of biological materials with liquid nitrogen at low temperatures. Wheaton’s plastic Cryules are autoclavable and, like every one of the glass Cryules, can withstand temperatures between -196°C and 121°C. Wheaton Vacules are vials which can be constructed for lyophilization and freeze-drying. Their heavy-wall construction makes them exceptionally durable, and they can be flame sealed or stored using a range of stoppers and caps.
Corning Incorporated Science Products Division makes some polypropylene vials that are designed for use at temperatures to -196°C. These come equipped with many different features including color-coded caps, silicon and rubber washers for secure sealing of contents, as well as simple-to-read graduations for partial volumes. Self-standing and locking features can be found with selected styles. Each one of Corning’s vials are supplied sterile and certified as nonpyrogenic.
Axygen Scientific Inc. makes microcentrifuge and screw-cap tubes for storing samples at subfreezing temperatures that happen to be designed with 99.9 percent pure polypropylene with no mineral fillers or heavy metals. Foreign substances are added limited to the request of your customer, and Axygen’s colorants contain no metallic ions such as iron, chromium, or nickel which can be typical constituents of dyes. Each one of the company’s vials is designed to snap closed in the locked position for centrifugation, and special piercing ports make your insertion of syringes easier for collecting samples. Axygen’s “O” ring closure system includes a patent-pending alignment system that guarantees that this microtube is aligned from the centrifuge rotor being re-spun without disturbing the pelletized sediment.
Sarstedt Inc. has an extensive catalog of microcentrifuge tubes that happen to be ideal for both freezing at ultralow temperatures and centrifugation that could come in an assortment of sizes, shapes, and colours. The consumer has the option for selecting from various externally threaded microtubes with attached or enclosed screw caps that may be colored for identification. All Sarstedt’s tubes are sterile, and also the polypropylene material that they may be constructed allows them to endure subfreezing temperatures and also temperatures and pressures inside an autoclave. One of several areas that Sarstedt has paid particular focus to in developing its type of products is the need for cryogenic vials which contain reaction buffers and enzymes for PCR applications.
Stockwell Scientific manufacturers CRYO-LOK® Cryogenic Vials and screw- cap microcentrifuge tubes for storage and transport at ultralow temperatures. These range in capacity from .5 ml to 3.5 ml and can be purchased in conical and skirted configurations. Stockwell’s microcentrifuge tubes can be subjected to a centrifugal force of 20,000 g and each one of its O-ring sealed tubes continues to be sterilized.
Storage inventory systems certainly are a critical a part of any long-term protocol for cryogenic preservation. Once cryogenic vials are stored at subfreezing temperatures they can undergo changes which make them difficult to keep trace. Labels can be brittle, breaking and separating from vials, and improperly stored tubes could be dropped into liquid nitrogen making retrieval difficult and costly. One of the more popular options for containing samples is definitely the canister and cane. Employing this technique, several vials are enclosed in a long aluminum shaft which is submerged within liquid nitrogen. The canes can be easily manipulated for small sample volumes and protect vials from damage that may occur from bumping or agitation. For greater storage capacities, however, the drawer product is usually preferred. Although drawer systems have a tendency to expose more samples to warming during exchange, the accessibility of the system reduces exposure time to ambient temperatures leading to less evaporation in the freezer, and in addition decreases the researcher’s exposure to potentially harmful cryogens.
Forma Scientific makes rack inventory systems for liquid-phase and vapor-phase storage. These racks are created to optimize the quantity of space for storing afforded by Forma’s liquid nitrogen containers. The standard inventory configuration is a cardboard or stainless steel construction arranged into arrowhead or square designs. Vertical inventory systems enable the user to organize up to 82 racks at maximum density.
TetraLink International focuses on making storage boxes and rack systems for cryogenic storage. Designed for the widest possible applicability, its freezer storage systems can be bought in a variety of sizes, shapes, and colours to fit almost any freezer. Clear lids allow contents to become viewed without opening the containers, and they are often adjusted in some models to support tubes of varying heights. Round holes provide spacing with clearance for snap-seal and safe-lock caps. TetraLink’s Racksys storage system uses sliding drawers that include storage racks for holding as many as 267 microtubes. These drawers can be installed in almost any upright freezer or refrigerator.
Nalgene and Nunc storage systems comprise a series of plastic or chipboard containers for microcentrifuge tubes and glass vials. They are keyed in order to avoid misalignment and offer temperature resistance from -196°C to 121°C.
Nalgene® CryoBox Racks provide steel retainer systems compatible with all Nalgene and Nunc storage boxes. They have vertical and horizontal storage for boxes that maintain each box separately for quick retrieval.
National Labnet provides freezer racks and storage boxes for the increasing selection of sample containers. As high-throughput experiments require greater reserves of reagents, LNG filling Station has responded with boxes and racks which are constructed for numerous examples of both well plates and cryovials. They also have introduced boxes with telescoping lids so that you can satisfy requirements for single box containers with vials of differing sizes.
Custom Biogenic Systems is probably the largest manufacturers of rack systems for cryogenic storage containers. In fact, several of its products are sold as standard accessories with a few of the major producers of laboratory freezers. Its pie-shaped racks are made from stainless steel and can include a selection of cardboard, aluminum, or stainless steel boxes with 1/2 inch or 5/8″ cell dividers. These systems can be acquired as individual units or as complete racks to be used in vapor- phase or liquid-phase storage.
Almost certainly, the cryogenic products one buys today is definitely the same ones which will be used for years to come. A purchase made today may work for decade. In place, researchers buying Cryogenic Centrifugal Pump are not just buying products for themselves, they can be buying with regard to their successors. The buyer should look into what might 46dexkpky over the course of years if their samples become degraded or contaminated because of improper storage. A bit money that had been saved in the beginning by scrimping on vials or freezers might not exactly appear to be the best downside when valuable samples are lost. In spite of the safeguards integrated to most of these devices many product managers recommend making regular maintenance on these products a high priority. Appointing a permanent position that is responsible for the cryogenic safety in the laboratory’s biological collection is among the best ways to assure the integrity of such samples.